Cognitive Biases

Von Restorff Effect

Also known as the “Isolation Effect” - predicts that when their are multiple homogenous stimuli, the one stimuli that differs is more likely to be remembered. (More Info)

Survivorship Bias

The logical error where we only consider those which made it through some event/selection process but do not consider all those that did not. Consequently, it can lead to overoptimistic beliefs because failures are not considered or are overlooked.

The best way to overcome survivorship bias it is to not only look at the examples that have ‘survived’, but rather attempt to look at all examples that commenced on the path.

More info here and here.